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- Editorial Board of TJPP -
- Nasraoui, Bouzid, INAT-University of Carthage, (Plant Mycology) CV
- Daami-Remadi, Mejda, CRRHABChM-University of Sousse, (Plant Mycology) CV
- BelKadhi, Mohamed Sadok, CTCPG/IRAM-University of Gabes, (Plant Protection) CV
- BenJamaâ, Mohamed Lahbib, INRGREF-University of Carthage, (Forest Entomology) CV
- Bouhachem, Sonia, INRAT-University of Carthage, (Entomology) CV
- Boulahia, Synda , INAT-University of Carthage, (Entomology) CV
- Chaabane, Hanène, INAT-University of Carthage, (Pesticide Science) CV
- Hamada, Walid, ESAK-University of Jendouba, (Plant-Pathogen Interaction) CV
- Horrigue, Najet , ISA-ChM -University of Sousse, (Plant Nematology) CV
- Mekki, Mounir, ISAChM-University of Sousse, (Weed Science) CV
- Mnari-Hattab, Monia, INRAT-University of Carthage, (Plant Virology) CV
- Rhouma, Ali, IRESA/IO-University of Sfax, (Plant Bacteriology) CV
- Evaluation Reviewers -
Acknowledgement of Reviewers
Tunisian Journal of Plant Protection (TJPP) gratefully appreciates the volunteer help of reviewers which evaluate, with care and competence, papers proposed for publication in the 2 Issues of the 11 th Volume, 2016. They are listed below in recognition of their contribution.
Al-Jboory Ibrahim, College Agric., Univ. Baghdad, Iraq
Special thanks go to (1) Dr. Abdallah Ben Abdallah and Dr. Faleiro, Jose Romeno, both FAO, Saudi Arabia, and (2) Prof. Ben Jamâa, Mohamed Lahbib, INRGERF, University of Carthage, Tunis, Tunisia, for writing for TJPP the Guest Editorials in respectively Issues No. 1 and No. 2 of the Volume 11 (2016).
Many thanks also to Mrs. Monia Seddik which prepares and designs with the Editor-in-Chief the new website of TJPP (2016).
- Evaluation Process -
Papers proposed for publication in Tunisian Journal of Plant Protection are evaluated by highly qualified national and international expert reviewers of the related disciplines. Contributions on all aspects of plant health are considered. Each proposed paper is evaluated by two volunteer reviewers, one national researcher working inside Tunisia and one international researcher working out of Tunisia. The proposition will be accepted or rejected if both reviewers respectively accept or reject it. If the two reviewer points of view are contradictory, the arbitration of a third specialized volunteer reviewer is requested and will decide for acceptance or rejection of the manuscript.
- Objective and Policy -
Online open access to full texts of Tunisian Journal of Plant Protection (TJPP) is with no subscription fees. The objective of publishing TJPP in open access is to freely disseminate research results for plant health specialized scientists in order to globally exchange and generalize knowledge in this field.
All TJPP publications are available as Attribution/Non-Commercial works under the Creative Commons License (CC BY-NC) which means that TJPP contents may be freely copied and distributed only for non-commercial purposes providing that credit is given to the publisher and the authors.
- Paper Submission -
The original manuscript should be submitted to the Editor-in-Chief of the Tunisian Journal of Plant Protection (TJPP) using the email address email@example.com. All the interchanged email messages between the corresponding author and the Editor-in-Chief must be also addressed to the co-authors of the manuscript in Cc. Submitted manuscript must not be published or submitted for publication elsewhere. There are no charges for submission, processing and publication in TJPP.
- Current Issue -
Tunisian Journal of Plant Protection
Volume 11, Number 2, December 2016
- Current Editorial -
Reflection on forest insect pests in the Mediterranean region, with particular attention to Tunisia
The forest area in Mediterranean countries was over 85 million ha, representing 2% of the world's forest area. The Mediterranean vegetation support 20% of the plant species on Earth, where t here are more than 25 000 plant species and more than half are endemic. M any hot spots are located there, giving the Mediterranean ecosystems a high biological value. The climate is typically warmed temperate, with a summer dry season usually not exceeding 4 months but giving it a certain severity. Everywhere however, climate change allows worrying about dramatic problems regarding tree health, as well as risk of extension of Mediterranean pests outside of their native areas.
The Mediterranean vegetation is dominated by evergreen shrubs and sclerophyllous trees adapted to the distinctive climatic regime of summer drought and cool moist winters with only sporadic frost. In addition to the woodland, we distinguish two main types of degraded forest, the maquis (dense shrub formations) and garrigue (more open and aromatic shrubs). The most forest species are: Quercus suber (cork oak), Quercus ilex (holm oak), Cedrus atlantica (Atlas cedar), Pinus halepensis (Aleppo pine), Pinus pinea (stone pine), Pinus pinaster (Maritime pine).
The Mediterranean forest is threatened by abiotic factors (such as air pollution, storms, drought and fire) and other biotic factors (such as woody invasive species, wildlife browsing and grazing). They also have many forest health problems, including those associated with insect pests and diseases.
A total of 89 insect's pests with major outbreaks were reported from the Mediterranean countries (FAO, 2013). Over the 27 insect pests reported as the most one, 13 were coleopterans (beetles), 9 were lepidopterans (butterflies and moths), 4 were hymenopterans (sawflies), and one was a hemipteran (aphid).
Insect pests indigenous to the Mediterranean region cause considerable damage. Bark beetles count among the most dangerous insects that attack pine forests to which they can cause severe damage, such as Tomicus destruens and Orthotomicus erosus which is a carrier of pathogenic fungi and is known to carry Sphaeropsis sapinea , which causes mortality in many Pinus species. Defoliators such as the gypsy moth ( Lymantria dispar ) and Pine Processionary Moth ‘PPM' ( Thaumetopoea pityocampa ) are also a regional problem. L. dispar is a significant pest because the caterpillars have various appetites for more than 300 species of trees and shrubs. The caterpillars defoliate trees, leaving trees vulnerable to diseases and can eventually kill the tree. In Tunisia, currently, this pest is in a latency phase (low level and absence of defoliation). However, s ince 1995 the PPM's range has been expanding constantly, in both latitude and altitude. Moreover, in some areas, outbreaks are becoming more severe, as well as repeating over time. The PPM is a major pest in the Mediterranean basin due to their larvae, which voraciously feed on pine needles and have urticating hairs. T he Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ‘IPCC' retained the moth as one of the two insect indicators of climate change because of its expansion with warming up.
Similar invasive forest insects have been introduced in the various Mediterranean countries, originating from other Mediterranean ecosystems and damaging similar tree species. A number of high profile insect pest species native to Australia are established in many Mediterranean countries, where they are causing considerable damage to forests. In Tunisia, six species were reported on Eucalyptus species: Phoracantha semipunctata , P. recurva , Leptocybe invasa , Ophelimus maskelli , Glycaspis brimblecombei and Blastopsylla eucalypti . The outbreaks of many species are now controlled by their natural enemies.
In general, all exotic forest tree species will be attacked by insect pests. Such as Eucalyptus , they were introduced in Tunisia since the fifteen, but 10 years later its xylophagous Phoracantha sempinuctata was detected destroying many hectares of planted areas. P. semipunctata was established in all Eucalyptus forest and survived and multiplied due to the absence of natural enemies. However, 20 years later its egg parasitoid Avetianella longoi was observed where the parasitism rate varies between 30 to 95% in some cases. During the 2000's other wasps gall species were detected. The Eucalyptus gall wasp O. maskelli was detected in 2006. Its arrival was followed after about two years by its parasitoid, Closterocerus chamaeleon . A consistent reduction was found in the observed host range of the gall wasp after the establishment of the parasitoid with a reduction of 83% on Eucalyptus species. Host range narrowed down from 18 to 3 closely-related host species ( E. camaldulensis , E. tereticornis and E. rudis ). However, G. brimblecombei was recorded in 2010 and its parasitoid Psyllaephagus bliteus was observed two years later. Its parasitism rate is continuously increasing from 3.7% in August 2012 to 76.4% in August 2016. At this case, forest health monitoring is important, because the control agents will re-establish equilibrium to keep the pest under control, and we do not need to apply control.
Prof. Mohamed Lahbib Ben Jamâa
- Recent News -
Plant Protection News
Adaptive Management and Monitoring of the Maghreb's Oasis Systems Project (GCP/SNE/002/GFF)
Tozeur, Tunisia, 19-21 September, 2016
FAO project ID: 629461, GEF/LDCF/SCCF Project ID: 5798
Resource Partner: Global Environment Facility (GEF)
Recipient Countries: Mauritania, Morocco and Tunisia
Financing Plan: GEF/LDCF/SCCF, Allocation: GEFTF (USD 1,726,484)
The Global Environmental Objective of the project is: To enhance, expand and sustain the adaptive management and monitoring of the Maghreb oasis systems
This project is coordinated by regional coordinator Mr. Slaheddine Abdedaiem and national coordinator Mr. Ahmed Namsi (CRRAO-Degache)
This project is based on the key assumption that adequate and timely knowledge is key to the sustainable management of oases. The project recognizes that, to date, a key barrier to the sound management of oases has been the lack of understanding, among the key oasis users, of trends, indicators, and dynamics of the oasian ecosystem. It is therefore focusing on providing the right kind of knowledge, to the right kind of users, at the appropriate time. The project will be supporting activities addressing the barriers that prevent dynamic conservation and adaptive management of Maghreb oasis ecosystems. To do so, the project will endeavor to:
Enhanced institutional sk ills and technical capacity for managing, monitoring and analyzing the oasis production systems (outcome 1). Among others, Phytosanitary systems and especially the p est and disease surveillance
Local Stakeholders' capacities are enhanced to disseminate knowledge and conduct trainings on best practices for SLM and better management of oases (outcome 2). In between, best practices in methods of control against pests and diseases.
Increased awareness among policy makers, communities, associations and networks about oasis ecosystems and adaptive management tools (outcome 3).
The project's Monitoring and Evaluation System enables adaptive management (outcome 4)
Thus, within the scope of this project, two main levels of activities are considered: (1) to support country level information systems on oasian degradation trends, as well as monitoring systems that will enhance the national and regional monitoring and management of oasis ecosystems, and (2) linking and harmonizing initiatives at a local level while sharing knowledge on best adaptive management practices.
Dr. Ahmed Namsi
- Recent Doctorates -
Recent Doctorate Theses in Plant Protection ( 2015/16 )
Ehsine, M'hammed.2015. Relationship Phoenix dactylifera L. Oryctes agamemnon Burm. in oases of southern Tunisia. Doctorate Thesis in Biological Sciences, Faculty of Sciences of Sfax, University of Sfax, Sfax, Tunisia. 168 pp. (Public Defense: 26 December 2015)
This work was carried out in the date palm area in southern Tunisia. It constitutes a contribution to the knowledge of some bio-ecological parameters of Oryctes agamemnon in order to conceive a control strategy against this pest.
O. agamemnon was reported for the first time in Tunisia in 1995 in the oases of Tozeur and it is currently present in the oases of Rjim Maàtoug in the region of Kebili. The infested oases by O. agamemnon in both regions present 9% of the total area of the oases of Tunisia.
The study of the ecology of this pest showed that it is devastating insect, associated with date palm tree in this region. Furthermore, the manure allows the proliferation and the multiplication of the insect, and constitutes a certain way for its dissemination.
The most important damages of the pest are caused by larval stages, mainly the larva of the third stage. Damage concerns various organs of the date palm trees and the offshoots leading to the decrease of their resumption rate.
Field survey showed that O. agamemnon is a univoltine species, with a single flight peak. Adults appear in the field around late May early June and the population continues to build up until maximum numbers are reached between the end July and early August. The monitoring of nocturnal activity showed that it starts its activities roughly 40 min after the sunset and continues until approximately 1 hour before sunrise. We remarked that the sex ratio of the cumulated number of trapped adults in the different years of the survey was in favor of females.
The study of the biological characteristics of the insect allowed showing that O. agamemnon is an oviparous insect. It can lay fertile eggs only after a mating. The average number of eggs laid by a female is about 28 spread out over an average period of 37 days, with a rate of average fertility of 81% and a rate mean of survival 49%. The total duration of its development cycle is about 249 days among which more than 50% of this duration is dominated by the third stage larva.
The various measures and observations performed on larval stages show that the width of the cephalic capsule and the length of the mandible can be two reliable criteria for the distinction between the various larval stages of O. agamemnon and that the structure of mandible and particularly the form of the sensory areas of antennas can be used as a key for identification of the species.
The study of the genetic variability of O. agamemnon in the oases of the South Tunisia shows, that the ISSR is applicable for its molecular characterization and that there is a structuring within the populations which seems to be related with the kind of reproduction of the insect.
Morphological characterization of native entomopathogenic nematode showed that it belongs to the genus Heterorhabditis , and it can be multiplied in vitro. Its use against the larvae of O. agamemnon opens perspectives for its inclusion as the main component of an integrated pest management program against this pest.
This thesis considers taxonomic and ecological aspect of aphid-pathogenic fungi. The overall objective was to obtain knowledge about the fungal pathogens of aphids (Hemiptera, Aphididae) in various agricultural systems in Tunisia which are relevant in future for their use as biological control agents. Entomopathogenic fungi parasitizing aphids on different crops and weeds were investigated in Tunisia. Fungal species were identified based on morphological characters such as shape, size, and number of nuclei in the primary conidia. Molecular characterization using P CR on the internal transcribed spacer 1 region (ITS1) was also performed. We documented for the first time in Tunisia four entomopathogenic fungi from the new phylum Entomophthoromycota : Pandora neoaphidis , Entomophthora planchoniana (Entomophthorales: Entomophthoraceae), Conidiobolus obscurus (Entomophthorales: Ancylistaceae) and Neozygites fresenii (Neozygitales: Neozygitaceae), infecting 10 different aphid species . P. neoaphidis and E. planchoniana were recorded on all sampled aphid species and sites, whereas C. obscurus and N. fresenii were sporadically reported. Two methods were used to assess prevalence of P. neoaphidis and E. planchoniana on Sitobion avenae and Rhopalosiphum padi infesting barley and Myzus persicae infesting peach and potato crops. The first method consists on daily records of aphid cadavers occurring after sampling and incubation of l iving aphids till death and mycosis development. The second method consists on infection records of aphid cadavers showing entomophthoralean symptom in the field. Both methods have demonstrated the important role of both fungal species in declining green peach and cereal aphid populations. However, only the method 1 was considered due to challenges related to fungal identification from old cadavers. Prevalence of P. neoaphidis and E. planchoniana seems to be affected by bioclimatic zones and target crops. P. neoaphidis was more prevalent in sub-humid areas on S. avenae and R. padi, to be more common in semi-arid zones on M. persicae . For E. planchoniana, the fungus occurred with no significant differences on barley associated aphids in all target sites, while it was more prevalent in dry environment on M. persicae . Susceptibility of S. avenae and R. padi to fungal infection wastested in vitro through cross transmission experiment. The use of S. avenae cadavers as inoculum sources either for P. neoaphidis or E. planchoniana to infect healthy S. avenae and R. padi individuals has shown possible transmission of both mycoses. Conspecific aphids ‘ S. avenae / S. avenae' were found to be more susceptible to fungal infection than different aphid species ‘ S. avenae / R. padi' . Within the adopted model, biological control potentials of P. neoaphidis and E. planchoniana have been proved.
Monosporascus Root Rot and Vine Decline (MRRVD) of cucurbits is a disease that becomes prominent in several cucurbit-producing areas under field and greenhouse conditions worldwide. Prospections carried out in 2009/10 in some cucurbit-growing areas revealed the presence of another species, Monosporascus eutypoides . To confirm this hypothesis, a phenotypic and genomic characterization of isolates of Monosporascus spp. from 12 countries was determined. Themulti-gene analysis (ITS, EF-1a, ß-tub and microsatellites) identified a level of polymorphism that enabled separation of M. cannonballus , M. eutypoides and Monosporascus ibericus . However, a low genetic diversity within Tunisian isolates of M. cannonballus based on the mycelial compatibility groups (MCG) and ITS sequences. Same results were found between Tunisian and other isolates from 11 countries according to the analysis of the MCG and microsatellites groups. A disease management trials under field conditions was conducted during two growing seasons (2009/10 and 2010/11) based on crop sequences of two cucurbits (melon cv. Afamia, watermelon cv. Sentinel, and watermelon cv. Sentinel grafted on Cucurbita maxima × C. moschata (cv. TZ-148), and a culture of Solanaceae tomato cv. Giganti). The quantification of ascospores was altered between the two cucurbits and tomato revealing the relationship cucurbits- M. cannonballus . The disease incidence revealed the sensitivity of watermelon and melon in 2010 (69%) and in 2011 (55-46%) compared to the grafted watermelon in 2010 (45%) and 2011 (42%). Some crops have showed a disease severity index ( DSI ) of 2 at the third sampling date (70 DAP) in 2011. The various vegetative growth parameters (stem height (HT), dry weight of the aerial part (PSPA) and root (PSR)) have confirmed this conclusion.
The efficiency of three fungicides (Alto Super® (propiconazole + cyproconazole) Horizon® (tebuconazole) and Maxim® (fludioxonil)) under fields (2011/12) was evaluated against MRRVD among two cucurbits (melon (cv. Galia), watermelon (cv. Dumara) and watermelon (cv. Dumara) grafted on TZ-148 according to three scenarios by drenching soil. No significant differences were recorded between fungicides for all studied variables except for root development index (RDI). The reduction in the progress of the damage by M. cannonballus was spotted from the first date of treatment ( 09/07/2012 ). Maxim® showed a beneficial effect on root development by improving the index RDI , especially in combination with grafted plants. The field trial results were less promising and require more work.
In Tunisia, Orgyia trigotephras is bivoltine, with a spring generation and an autumn generation.Two lineages A (in the North-East) and B (in the North-west) of O. trigotephras were identified. Lineage A was observed on Quercus coccifera , Pistacia lentiscus and Erica multiflora , nevertheless lineage B was observed on Q. suber and Q. coccifera .
In the North-East, larvae of O. trigotephras , polyphagous, were observed on Arbutus unedo , Calicotome villosa , Cistus crispus , E. arborea , E. multiflora , P. lentiscus and Q. coccifera. Pupation and egg laying take place on C. villosa , E. arborea , E. multiflora , Phillyrea media , P. lentiscus and Q. coccifera . L arvae and egg-masses are rarely foun d on Daphne gnidium and Pinus halepensis .
At lab, larval development of O. trigotephras is better on Q. coccifera than on P. lentiscus , E. multiflora , E. arborea and Ph. Media . Nutritional indexes (TRC, TRI, ECD, ECI and DA) varied between species. Also, field feeding trials showed that female fecundity differs between species.
Attractiveness test showed that 2 nd , 3 rd , 4 th and 5 th instar larvae of the spring generation choose variably the tested foliage of Q. suber , Q. coccifera , P. lentiscus , Ph. media , D. gnidium , E. multiflora and C. monspelienisis. Olfactometric analysis showed that 3 rd , 4 th and 5 th instars larvae of the autumn generation choose preferentially tested foliage of Q. coccifera , P. lentiscus , E. multiflora , E. arborea , C. crispus , Ph. media , D. gnidium and Myrtus communis . Flavonols levels varied according the foliage type (attacked or not, old or new).
Monitoring of populations of O. trigotephras (from 2005 to 2014) allows suggesting that this species has a cyclical dynamics. An outbreak was observed in 2005, followed by a retro-gradation the following years. Female fecundity decreased linearly to increase in 2012. Such behavior highlights the effect of the foliage quality of the host-plant as main factor that can affect female fecundity and so the bottom-up is the important mechanism that governed the population's dynamics of this lepidoptera, whereas egg parasitoids had a minor importance. The egg masses were parasitized by Aprostocetus sp. (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae) and predated by Coccidiphila rungsella (Lepidoptera, Cosmopterigidae). Our data on egg mortality due to natural enemies were significantly higher on Q. coccifera than on P. lentiscus when populations were at high densities (2005-2009).
Intra-specific and inter-specific competitions, human actions, overgrazing, wind effect (first-instar larvae disperse) and the rain (inhibits larva movement) could have an important effect on the dynamic of this insect.
- Previous Issues -
Tunisian Journal of Plant Protection (TJPP)
21) TJPP, Vol. 11, No. 1, June 2016